28 March 2023

Luxembourg: Birth of Hereditary Grand Ducal couple's second child

The Grand Ducal Court of Luxembourg yesterday - 27 March 2023 - announced the birth of Hereditary Grand Duke Guillaume and Hereditary Grand Duchess Stéphanie's second child, Prince François:

Birth of H.R.H. Prince François

Their Royal Highnesses the Crown Prince and the Crown Princess are delighted to announce the birth of their son at the Maternité Grande-Duchesse Charlotte in Luxembourg on Monday, 27th March 2023 at 10:04 am.

The newborn Prince will be named François Henri Luis Marie Guillaume. He weights 3.575 kg and measures 53 cm.

Princess Stéphanie and her child are both healthy and well.

The Crown Prince, the Crown Princess and his brother Prince Charles are looking forward to introducing Prince François to you.

The pregnancy was announced in late September 2022. Prince François, who was born as no. 3 in the line of succession to the Grand Ducal throne, is the sixth grandchild of Grand Duke Henri and Grand Duchess Maria Teresa.

The current line of succession:

  1. Hereditary Grand Duke Guillaume (b. 1981)
  2. Prince Charles (b. 2020)
  3. Prince François (b. 2023)
  4. Prince Félix (b. 1984)
  5. Princess Amalia of Nassau (b. 2014)
  6. Prince Liam of Nassau (b. 2016)
  7. Princess Alexandra (b. 1991)
  8. Prince Sébastien (b. 1992)
  9. Prince Guillaume (b. 1963)
  10. Prince Paul Louis of Nassau (b. 1998)
  11. Prince Léopold of Nassau (b. 2000)
  12. Prince Jean André of Nassau (b. 2004)
  13. Prince Robert (b. 1968)
  14. Prince Alexandre of Nassau (b. 1997)
  15. Prince Frederik of Nassau (b. 2002)
I have earlier commented on the revision of the succession law (the Nassau Family Pact) and how it should be or might be understood, see my blog articles of 29 June 2012 and 23 June 2011. The key word is still "erstmals" in article 24 of the Family Pact. It could be interpreted as saying that as of now the daughters of Prince Guillaume, Prince Charles and Prince Robert don't have succession rights, but I am not 100 % sure of this. I still haven't found an authoritative source that explicitly says if they are in line or not. The readers are more than welcome to join the discussion!

16 March 2023

UK: Duke of Edinburgh Letters Patent published

The Letters Patent creating Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex and Forfar Duke of Edinburgh was published in The London Gazette on Tuesday 14 March 2023:

Crown Office

HIS MAJESTY THE KING has been pleased to direct Letters Patent to be passed under the Great Seal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, granting unto His Majesty’s Brother, His Royal Highness Prince Edward Antony Richard Louis, Earl of Wessex and Forfar, K.G., G.C.V.O., for life the dignity of Duke of Edinburgh.

The wording leaves no doubt that Prince Edward has received a life peerage. something that came as a surprise to most of us when the creation was announced on his 59th birthday last Friday, 10 March 2023.

12 March 2023

UK: Title bonanza ... sort of

There has been som sort of a "title bonanza" (in the meaning "a large amount of something good", cf. Cambridge Dictionary) in the United Kingdom lately. Maybe I am stretching the expression a bit. But I thought the subject title would look rather cool with it, so I will stick to it.

I have been rather busy lately, among others I have paid visits to Egypt and the United States, so I have not been able to update my blog for some time. This article will provide a summary of recent title news in the United Kingdom.

1. Prince of Wales

A Letters Patent creating Prince William, Duke of Cornwall etc. Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester was published in The London Gazette on 24 February 2023:

Crown Office

In accordance with the direction of HIS MAJESTY THE KING Letters Patent have passed the Great Seal of the Realm, dated the 13th February 2023 for creating His Royal Highness Prince William Arthur Philip Louis, Duke of Cornwall Rothesay and Cambridge, Earl of Carrick and Strathearn, Baron of Renfrew, Baron Carrickfergus, K.G., K.T., Lord of the Isles and Prince and Great Steward of Scotland, PRINCE OF WALES and EARL OF CHESTER.

One can only wonder why it has taken so long to issue the Letters Patent, but better late than never, they say. In his first speech to the nation on 9 September 2022, the day after King Charles III succeeded to the throne, he let it be known that he had created his son Prince William Prince of Wales. The Letters Patent only formalized that decision, and the creation should be counted from 9 September 2022, not 24 February 2023. By the way, Marlene Koenig wrote a good historical summary of Letters patents and the Prince of Wales title on 6 February 2023, updated on 24 February 2023, in her blog Royal Musings.

2. Prince Archie and Princess Lilibet of Sussex

Last Thursday (9 March 2023) the spokesperson of the Duke and Duchess of Sussex issued a press statement informing that "that Princess Lilibet Diana was christened on Friday, March 3 by the Archbishop of Los Angeles, the Rev John Taylor". Leaving the fact that John Taylor is a bishop and not an archbishop for now, the titles for the Sussex children came as a surprise to most observers. The titles were confirmed by Buckingham Palace when the line of succesion was updated early on 9 March. What a mess the Palace and the Sussexes have created. First, such news should have come in a statement from Buckingham Palace, not from the Sussexes. According to The Telegraph, the Duke and Duchess of Sussex had made it known to the royal family before Christmas that the children would take the royal titles. So why not give out the information then? Technically the Sussex children became Prince and Princess on 8 September 2022 in accordance with the Letters Patent of 30 November 1917. According to the same Letters Patent, "the grandchildren of the sons of any such Sovereign in the direct male line (save only the eldest living son of the eldest son of the Prince of Wales) shall have and enjoy in all occasions the style and title enjoyed by the children of Dukes of these Our Realms". But when Archie was born in May 2019 it was stated that the baby boy would be known as Archie Harrison Mountbatten-Windsor and, even if not expressed explicitly, not, by courtesy, as Earl of Dumbarton (Prince Harry's secondary title). Similarly, when Lilibet was born in June 2021, she was named Lilibet Diana Mountbatten-Windsor without "Lady" in front, whch technically was her right.

I have always wondered why the Duke and Duchess of Sussex made these decisions for their children at the time. It could be that they felt "snubbed" because the children were not gien royal titles right away just like the (younger) children of the current Prince and Princess of Wales (then Duke and Duchess of Cambridge), cf. the Letters Patent of 31 December 2012. We remember the infamous Oprah interview in March 2021 where the Duchess of Sussex commented on the title issue, and we were surprised (or maybe we shouldn't be) that she was so ill-informed. Of course Prince Harry should have known this and should have told her. But when reading his autobiography Spare I get the impression that Prince Harry don't/didn't know much about all the formalities surrounding the royal family and the monarchy, and that his father and the relevant court members have failed to communicate such formalities. I get the impression that the lack of communication within the British royal family is rather bad.

So, it seems that King Charles since his accession had let it be up to the Sussexes to decide on whether they should let their children use their rightfully royal titles or not. And now it has been decided and announced. Another statement from the Sussexes last Thursday said that "The children’s titles have been a birthright since their grandfather became monarch. This matter has been settled for some time in alignment with Buckingham Palace". The Palace should in my opinion have issued a statement and updated the official website much earlier. Maybe the Sussexes had feared that the king would issue a new Letters Patent restricting the titles for the members of the royal family and wanted to come ahead of such an issue. It would be more difficult for the king to make such a restriction now, but allegedly it has never been the king's intention to deprive them of the titles. All in all, it is just a communication mess. I get the birthright explanation and all, but when the children live in the United States and when the relationship with the British Royal Family is as it is, I wonder what they need the royal titles for. Obviously the titles will only be used in more formal settings.

3. Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex and Forfar created Duke of Edinburgh

Buckingham Palace announced on 10 March 2023, which was the earl's 59th birthday, that Prince Edward had been created Duke of Edinburgh:

His Majesty The King has been pleased to confer the Dukedom of Edinburgh upon The Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex and Forfar, on the occasion of His Royal Highness’s 59th birthday.  

The title will be held by Prince Edward for His Royal Highness’s lifetime. 

The Dukedom was last created for Prince Philip in 1947, upon his marriage to Princess Elizabeth, who held the title of Duchess of Edinburgh before acceding to the throne in 1952.

The new Duke and Duchess of Edinburgh are proud to continue Prince Philip’s legacy of promoting opportunities for young people of all backgrounds to reach their full potential.

So finally Prince Edward got the ducal title as promised. I wrote about the title issue back in March 2019 when he was created Earl of Forfar, so I don't feel the need to repeat it here. But I must say that I am very  happy about the decision! The way the statement is phrased one gets the impression that Prince Edward has only been created Duke of Edinburgh for life, i.e. that the creation is not hereditary. We just have to wait and see how the Letters Patent, whenever it will be issued, is phrased before we know for sure. It could be that King Charles doesn't want the traditional royal ducal title to be carried by a commoner as will happen sooner or later to the ducal titles of Gloucester and Kent. Another question is whether the king is able to create a life peerage that is not a barony or not, cf. the Life Peerage Act (1958). Marlene Koenig has recently tweeted a link to a briefing on this question.

The Duke of Edinburgh's son James is now styled Earl of Wessex, while Louise continues t be styled [The] Lady Louise Mountbatten-Windsor.

14 February 2023

Sweden: King Carl Gustaf to undergo heart surgery

The Swedish Royal Court announced today that King Carl Gustaf is to undergo a planned heart surgery on Monday 20 February 2023:

14 February 2023

HM The King to undergo planned surgical procedure

On the advice of his physician, HM The King will undergo a planned surgical procedure on Monday 20 February 2023. The procedure will be performed using laparoscopic (keyhole) surgery in the heart area.

The procedure will be followed by a period of rest. The King’s planned official engagements between 20 February and 3 March will therefore be postponed until later this spring.

The King is in good health and until 20 February will carry out his official engagements as planned.

King Carl Gustaf, who will be 77 years old in April, will later this year celebrate his 50th anniversary as king.

8 February 2023

Denmark: Queen Margrethe to undergo surgery

The Danish Royal Court announced today that Queen Margrethe will undergo surgery on 22 February 2023 in order to solve her back problems. The press statement in full:

HM The Queen will undergo surgery

For quite some time, Her Majesty has been affected by problems with her back, and the situation has worsened recently. After consultation with Rigshospitalet’s specialists, The Queen has decided to undergo extensive surgery.

The operation is planned for Wednesday, 22 February at Rigshospitalet in Copenhagen, where The Queen will thus also be hospitalized afterwards. Consequently, a longer sequence of physical rehabilitation is expected.

This means that Her Majesty’s official program in the near future will be postponed, canceled or handled by other members of The Royal Family.

24 January 2023

UK: Princess Eugenie of York's pregnancy announcement

Princess Eugenie of York announced at her official Instagram account earlier today that she and her husband Jack Brooksbank are expecting their second child in the summer of 2023.

Princess Eugenie, the younger daughter of the Duke of York and Sarah, Duchess of York, née Ferguson, married Jack Brooksbank on 12 October 2018 at St. George's Chapel, Windsor Castle. They became parents to their first child, August Philip Hawke Brooksbank, on 9 February 2021

The Brooksbank baby will enter the line of succession to the British throne as no. 13. He or she will be the Duke of York's third grandchild and the 13th great-grandchild of the late Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh.

16 January 2023

Funeral service for former King Constantine II of the Hellenes

The funeral service for former King Constantine II of the Hellenes, who died on 10 January 2023, 82 years old, took place in the Metropolitan Cathedral of Athens on Monday 16 January 2023, followed by burial at the royal cemetery at Tatoi. 

I wrote last Wednesday that «It is expected that the funeral will be attended by members of Europe's current and past royal and princely families, including Spain, Serbia, Bulgaria and Romania». I had somehow feared that many reigning European royal families, except for those with the closest relations, would not be represented in order not to stepping on the toes of the Greek govenment, due to EU and NATO connections etc. I had obviously not thought through this fear or sort of analysis well enough. The funeral turned out to be an impressive gathering of people who wantged to say good bye to a former king and dear relative and friend.

I have tried to compile a survey of royals attending the funeral service, based on the official websites and other sources, such as various TV clips posted on Twitter during the day, Nobiliana.de etc.  Among the members of the Greek royal family attending the funeral were Queen Anne-Marie, Crown Prince Pavlos, Crown Princess Marie-Chantal, Princess Maria-Olympia, Prince Constantine-Alexios, Prince Achileas-Andreas, Prince Odyseus-Kimon, Prince Aristidis-Stavros, Princess Alexia, Carlos Morales y Quintana, Prince Nikolaos, Princess Tatiana, Princess Theodora, Matthew Kumar, Prince Philippos, Princess Nina, Princess Irene, the latter the younger sister of the late king, Prince Michael and his wife Marina Karella and their eldest daughter Princess Alexandra and her husband.

Other royal families


  • King Philippe and Queen Mathilde

  • Queen Margrethe II
  • Crown Prince Frederik
  • Prince Joachim
  • Princess Benedikte
  • Queen Noor Al Hussein
  • Princess Raiyah Bint Al Hussein
  • Princess Sarvath El Hassan
  • Princess Margaretha
  • Grand Duke Henri
  • Prince Albert II
  • King Willem-Alexander and Queen Máxima 
  • Princess Beatrix
  • Crown Prince Haakon & Crown Princess Mette-Marit
  • Princess Märtha Louise*
  • King Felipe VI and Queen Letizia
  • King Juan Carlos and Queen Sofia (sister of King Constantine)
  • Infanta Elena, Duchess of Lugo
  • Infanta Cristina
  • King Carl Gustaf and Queen Silvia
  • Princess Christina, Mrs. Magnusson*
United Kingdom**
  • Princess Anne, the Princess Royal and Sir Tim Laurence
Former monarchies

  • Margrave Bernhard and Margravine Stephanie
  • King Simeon II
  • Hereditary Prince Ernst August and Hereditary Princess Ekaterina
  • Prince Christian and Princess Alessandra
  • Empress Farah Pahlavi
  • Radu Duda (Prince Radu)
  • Grand Duchess Maria Vladimirovna
  • Princess Alexandra
  • Prince Alexander
  • Crown Prince Alexander and Crown Princess Katherine

Other dignitaries


  • Deputy Prime Minister Panagiotis Pikrammenos
  • Culture Minister Lina Mendoni
According to eKathimerini.com about 200 people attended the funeral service, while 60 of them followed the coffin to the Tatoi royal cemetery. A mermorial dinner took place in Athens later on Monday.

* Princess Märtha Louise does not represent the royal house at the funeral service, cf. the official website, but rather herself. Because she is a princess I have put her in the official section. The same goes for Princess Christina, Mrs. Magnusson
** Lady Gabriella Kingston, who was one of the late king's godchildren, was present for the funeral service. As she is not a royal she is not listed here. It has been stated that she represented the Prince of Wales at the funeral.
*** Chantal Hochuli, formerly Princess of Hannover, mother of Prince Ernst August and Prince Christian, also attended the funeral service.
**** Nicholas de Roumanie-Medforth-Mills, formerly styled Prince Nicholas of Romania), also attended the lying in prior to the funeral service.

Updated on Wednesday 18 January 2023 at 07:45 (added Princess Raiyah in the Jordan section as well as footnotes *** and ****), then at  09:55 (updated footnote ****), last time updated on Monday 23 January 2023 at 09:25 (Schleswigh-Holstein added).